How to make difficult professions more attractive? What is the feature of income distribution in Russia? Why women work three shifts per day? Natalia Khoroshiltseva, assistant professor at the Department of Labour and Personnel Economics at MSU, expert in labour organisation, answered these questions in her interview with the EWC journalists. 

From her youth the interviewee was sure she would have economic education and follow in her brother’s and father’s footsteps. 

“Defense of a thesis on economics has become our family tradition. In addition, this field will always be relevant. I am a specialist dealing with issues related to salaries, organisation, and labour estimation. These things are important for any enterprise”, she said. 


Men’s and Women’s Professions 

With time, the boundaries between men’s and women’s professions are being erased. Nevertheless, there is still a certain model of division of labour. It is preserved not only due to the complexity of a certain type of work, but also to the traditions and stereotypes that have evolved in society. An interesting fact is that for many centuries schoolteacher was considered men’s profession in Western Europe and women’s one in Russia. However, such stereotypes are fading away nowadays. 

The interviewee paid special attention to scientific and technical progress, which allowed automating monotonous, dirty, and heavy physical labor. Many industrial enterprises have modern equipment today. In this regard, workers start performing the functions of those who runs, organises and supervises the process. This attracts more women into those areas of activity where they could not previously work in due to insufficient endurance, physical strength, and other reasons. 

Natalia Khoroshiltseva stressed that such an automation would not create problems with employment. Today, Russia is one of the countries with the lowest unemployment level. The main thing is to make many professions more attractive for people, especially for the young. 


About Salaries 

As a specialist in salaries and wages, Natalia told us about the features of income distribution in Russia. Today Russia has a differentiation of paying for labour of people in different professions and position. This fact is caused by a sharp transition from the centrally controlled rigorous regulation of the organization and payments to the uncontrolled distribution of income in the 90's. In other words, a number of parameters have not been established at the legislative level. 

For example, today the size of the minimum wage is clearly defined. But it is the same for all professions and positions irrespective of the qualifications of employees. This means that even for hard work a person can receive little. Due to this fact, difficult professions with poor payment cease to be interesting for the public. 

The solution, according to the interviewee, lies in combining such measures, as state regulation of legislation in this area and the provision of a normal supply and demand in the labor market. 

The speaker believes, that it is necessary to establish different levels of minimum salaries to enforce interest in jobs requiring long preparation and responsible approach. The principle is simple: the more difficult the job, the higher the minimum wage. In this case, taxes can serve as a financial source. 

It is probable that advancement of the minimum payment level will attract more young people to difficult and responsible jobs. 


About Youth and Occupational Choice 

The interviewee pointed out several more factors affecting occupational choice of the young. First, adolescents have grown up in this communication and information environment. In this regard, the influence of mass media, advertising, opinions of friends, stereotypes having developed in the society are noticeable. 

Of course, parents play a significant role in occupational choice. After all, good education requires certain efforts from both the young and their family. Most parents try to ensure their child’s receiving a highly paid, prestigious, and interesting job without having an idea of ​​the situation in the labor market. This leads a large number of managers, lawyers, economists, and other professions that results in a shortage of jobs in the country. That is why when choosing a future profession for yourself or your child, always pay attention to the structure of the labor market. 

Speaking about the young, Natalia Khoroshiltseva stresses that representatives of the generation Y today represent the majority of future professionals in different fields of activity. The most important things for these young people are self-realization, being interested in what they do, and feedback from their administration and clients. As a rule, they easily switch jobs and constantly change places and even fields of activity to develop and find what they need. Employers should take it into consideration to approach workers appropriately. However, according to the interviewee, it is too early to characterize representatives of the generation Y as they are too young. 

About Volunteering 

Modern youth actively takes part in volunteering activity. At the same time, Natalia Khoroshiltseva believes that volunteering has become a popular trend for Russians of any age. 

The thing is that our society is a society of collectivists. This is caused by historical, ecological, biological, and many other factors. It's easier for us to live helping each other”, she said. 

As a specialist in labour and personnel organisation, the speaker stressed the importance of participation of young people in different volunteering programmes. She believes that it is a good opportunity for them to team up, feel being in contact with all those around them, understand the organisational process, etc. 

“Modern young people are the generation of information, the generation of the virtual world. The earlier they turn up in the real life, the better. This is why during education we try attracting students to volunteering programmes and provide them with internship. This helps them immerse in labour process and understand quicker what they want to do in life”, said Natalia Khoroshiltseva. 

About Women 

According to Natalia, women play a huge role in the development of Russia’s economy. They are the key workers and represent the majority of staff in many organisations. Statistically, during the working age, the economic activity of women is higher than that of men. 

“Russia is a country with a rich and complex history, which has a lot of useful resources. Russian women have always been actively engaged in the economy. They not only performed their household chores and family obligations, but also worked hard for the sake of the future of Russia”, she added. 

The speaker believes that the primary mission of women is combining all the things mentioned above. 

“It is important for women to find balance between family and work. It is important for them to be beautiful and smart workers in the eyes of colleagues and administration, to be caring wives and mothers, to manage organising rest for family and relax. It turns out that women work three shifts per day. At the same time, they manage to find harmony in themselves, their activity, and share this harmony with people around”, she finished. 

Viktoria Yezhova, news agency of the Eurasian Women’s Community

Translated by Nikolai Gavrilov